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Sennacherib Prism, 689 BC
Sennacherib Prism, 689 BC
Sennacherib Prism, 689 BC
Sennacherib Prism, 689 BC
June 18, 2016 at 11:25pm

Excerpt (2,707 years ago):

"As for Hezekiah, the Jew, who did not submit to my yoke, 46 of his strong, walled cities, as well as the small cities in their neighborhood, which were without number,—by es- calade 3 (destroyed) and by bringing up siege engines(?), by attacking and storming on foot, by mines, tunnels and breaches(P), I be- sieged and took (those cities). 200,150 people, great and small, male and female, horses, mules, asses, camels, cattle and sheep, without number, I brought away from them and counted as spoil. Himself, like a caged bird, I shut up in Jerusalem, his royal city. Earthworks I threw up against him,—the one coming out of his city gate I turned back to his misery. "

Sennacherib

Sennacherib was the king of Assyria (705-681 BC). He was assassinated in obscure circumstances in 681 BC, apparently by his eldest son. The Prism inscriptions shown above record his deeds.

Translation

Introduction {Col. 1, ll. 1-19)

233. Sennacherib, the great king, the mighty king, king of the universe, king of Assyria, king of the four quarters (of the earth); the wise ruler (lit, shepherd, "pastor"), favorite of the great gods, guardian of the right, lover of justice; who lends support, who comes to the aid of the needy, who turns (his thoughts) to pious deeds; perfect hero, mighty man; first among all princes, the flame that consumes the insubmissive, who strikes the wicked with the thunderbolt; the god Assur, the great mountain, has intrusted to me an unrivaled king- ship, and, above all those who dwell in palaces, has made powerful my weapons; from the upper sea of the setting sun to the lower sea of the rising sun, all humankind (lit., the black-headed race) he has brought in submission at my feet and mighty kings feared my warfare—leaving their abodes and flying alone, like the sudinnu, the bird of the cave (? cliffs) to (some) inaccessible place.

First campaign. Against Merodach-baladan of Babylon; tribute from the Aramean tribes on the lower Euphrates (Col. I, ll. 20-64)

234. In my first campaign I accomplished the defeat of Merodach-baladan, king of Babylonia, together with the army of Elam, his ally, in the plain of Kish. In the midst of that battle he forsook his camp and made his escape alone; (so) he saved his life. The chariots, horses, wagons, mules, which he left behind at the onset of battle, my hands seized. Into his palace, which is in Babylon, joyfully I entered. I opened his treasure-house:—gold, silver, vessels of gold and silver, precious stones of every kind (name), goods and prop- erty without limit (number), heavy tribute, his harem, (his) courtiers and officials, singers, male and female, all of his artisans, as many as there wers, the servants of his palace, I brought out, I counted as spoil. In the might of Assur, my lord, 75 of his strong, walled cities, of Chaldea, and 420 small cities of their environs, I surrounded, I conquered, their spoil I carried off. The Arabs, Arameans, and Chaldeans, who were in Erech, Nippur, Kish, Harsagkalamma, Kutha and Sippar, together with the citizens, the rebels (ML, sinners), I brought out, as booty I cotmted them. On my return (march), the Tu'muna, Rihihu, Iadakku, Ubudu, Kibr&, Malahu, Gurumu, Ubulu, Damunu, Gambulu, Hindaru, Ru'ua, Pukudu, Hamr&nu, Hagar&nu, Nabatu, Li'tau, Ara- means (who were) not submissive, all of them I conquered. 208,000 people, great and small, male and female, horses, mules, asses, camels, cattle and sheep, without number, a heavy booty, I carried off to Assyria.

235. In the course of my campaign, I received from Nabft- b61-shumate, governor of the city of Hararate, gold, silver, great mulberry (?, musukkani) trees, asses, camels, cattle and sheep, as his onerous contribution. The people (lit., subjects) of the city of Hirimme, wicked enemies, I cut down with the sword. Not one escaped. Their corpses I hung on stakes, surrounding the city (with them). That district (province) I reorganized. One ox, 10 lambs, 10 homers of wine, 20 homers of dates, its choicest, (as gifts) for the gods of Assyria, my lords, I established for all time.

Second campaign. Against the tribes east of the Tigris (Col. I, I. 65—Col. II, L 36)

236. In my second campaign Assur, my lord, encouraged me, and against the land of the Kassites and the land of the Iasubigallai, who from of old had not been submissive to the kings, my fathers, I marched. In the midst of the high moun- tains I rode on horseback, where the terrain was difficult, and had my chariot1 drawn up with ropes; where it became too steep, I clambered up on foot like the wild-ox. The cities of Bit-Kilamzah, Hardishpi and Bit-Kubatti, their strong, walled cities, I besieged, I captured. People, horses, mules, asses, cattle and sheep, I brought out from their midst and counted as booty. And their small cities, which were number- less, I destroyed, I devastated, I turned into ruins. The houses of the steppe, (namely) the tents, wherein they dwelt, I set on fire and turned them into (a mass) of flames. I turned round, and made that Bit-Kilamzah into a fortress,— I made its walls stronger than they had ever been before,— and settled therein people of the lands my hands had con- quered. The people of the land of the Kassites and the land of the Iasubigallai, who fled before my arms, I brought down out of the mountains and settled them in Hardishpi and Blt- Kubatti. Into the hand(s) of my official, the governor of Arrapha, I placed (lit., counted) them. I had a stele made, and the might of my conquering hand which I established upon them, I caused to be inscribed thereon. In the midst of the city I set it up.

237. The front of my yoke I turned {i.e., I turned about) and took the road to the land of the Ellipi. Before me (my approach) Ispabara, their king, forsook his strong cities, his treasure cities (lit., houses), and fled to distant (parts). Over the whole of his wide land I swept like a hurricane. The cities of Marubishti and Akkuddu, his royal residence cities, to- gether with 34 small cities of their environs, I besieged, I cap- tured, I destroyed, I devastated, I burned with fire. The peo- ple, great and small, male and female, horses, mules, asses, camels, cattle and sheep, without number, I carried off. I brought him to naught, I diminished his land. Sisirtu and Kummahlum, strong cities, together with the small cities of their environs, the district (province) of Bit-Barrfi in its totality, I cut off from his land and added it to the territory (lit., border) of Assyria. Elenzash I turned into the royal city and stronghold of that district. I changed its former name, calling its (new) name Kar-Sin-ahe-eriba (Senna- cherib-burg). Peoples of the lands my hands had conquered I settled therein. To my official, the governor of Harhar, I handed it (counted it). Thus I extended my land.

238. On my return march I received the heavy tribute of the distant Medes, whose name no one among the kings, my fathers, had (ever) heard. To the yoke of my rule I made them submit.

Third campaign. Against Syria-Palestine; siege of Jerusalem (Col. II, I. 37—Col. Ill, I. 49)

239. In my third campaign I went against the Hittite- land (Syria). Lule (Elulaeus), king of Sidon,—the terrifying splendor (lit, terrors of the splendors) of my sovereignty overcame him and far off into the midst of the sea he fled. (There) he died. Great Sidon, Little Sidon, Bit-Zitti, Zaribtu, Mahalliba, Ushu, Akzib, Akku, his strong, walled cities, where there were supplies (lit., fodder and drinking-places) for his garrisons,—the terrors of the weapon of Assur, my lord, overpowered them and they bowed in submission at my feet. Tuba'lu (Ethbaal, Ithobalus) I seated on the royal throne over them, and tribute, gift(s) for my majesty, I im- posed upon him for all time, without ceasing. From Min- himmu (Menahem), the Shamsimurunite, Tuba'lu, the Sidon- ite, Abdi-li'ti, the Arvadite, Uru-milki, the Gublite, Mitinti, the Ashdodite, Budu-ilu, the Beth-Ammonite, Kammusu- nadbi, the Moabite, Malik-rammu, the Edomite,—kings of Amurru, all of them, lavish gifts, as their heavy tribute, they brought before me for the fourth time, and kissed my feet. But Sidka, king of Ashkelon, who had not submitted to my yoke,—the gods of his father's house, himself, his wife, his sons, his daughters, his brothers, the seed of his father's house, I tore away and brought to Assyria. Sharru-lu-dari, son of Rukibti, their former king, I set over the people of Ashkelon and I imposed upon him the payment of tribute (in the form of) presents to my majesty. He accepted (lit., bore) my yoke. In the course of my campaign, Beth-Dagon, Joppa, Banaibarka, Asuru, cities of Sidka, who had not speedily bowed in submission at my feet, I besieged, I conquered, I carried off their spoil.

240. The officials, nobles and people of Ekron, who had thrown Padi, their king, bound by (treaty to) Assyria2 into fetters of iron and had given him over to Hezekiah, the Jew (Iaudai),—he kept him in confinement like an enemy,—they (lit., their heart) became afraid and called upon the Egyptian kings, the bowmen, chariots and horses of the king of Meluh- ha (Ethiopia), a countless host, and these came to their aid. In the neighborhood of the city of AltakA (Eltekeh), their ranks being drawn up before me, they offered battle. (Trust- ing) in the aid of Assur, my lord, I fought with them and brought about their defeat. The Egyptian charioteers and princes, together with the charioteers of the Ethiopian king, my hands took alive in the midst of the battle. Altakfi. (and) Tamna I besieged, I captured and took away their spoil. I drew near to Ekron and slew the governors and nobles who had committed sin (i.e., rebelled), and hung their bodies on stakes (or, pillars) around the city. The citizens who had sinned and treated (Assyria) lightly, I counted as spoil. The rest of them, who were not guilty of sin and contempt, who were without sin (blame),—I spoke their pardon. Padi, their king, I brought out of Jerusalem, I set him on the royal throne over them and imposed upon him my kingly tribute. As for Hezekiah, the Jew, who did not submit to my yoke, 46 of his strong, walled cities, as well as the small cities in their neighborhood, which were without number,—by es- calade 3 and by bringing up siege engines(?), by attacking and storming on foot, by mines, tunnels and breaches(P), I be- sieged and took (those cities). 200,150 people, great and small, male and female, horses, mules, asses, camels, cattle and sheep, without number, I brought away from them and counted as spoil. Himself, like a caged bird, I shut up in Jerusalem, his royal city. Earthworks I threw up against him,—the one coming out of his city gate I turned back to his misery. The cities of his, which I had despoiled, I cut off from his land and to Mitinti, king of Ashdod, Padi, king of Ekron, and Silli-bel, king of Gaza, I gave them. And (thus) I diminished his land. I added to the former tribute, and laid upon him (v., them) as their yearly payment, a tax (in the form of) gifts for my majesty. As for Hezekiah, the terrifying splendor of my majesty overcame him, and the Urbi (Arabs) and his mercenary(?)4 troops which he had brought in to strengthen Jerusalem, his royal city, deserted him (lit., took leave). In addition to 30 talents of gold and 800 talents of silver, (there were) gems, antimony, jewels(P), large sandu- stones, couches of ivory, house chairs of ivory, elephant's hide, ivory (lit, elephant's "teeth"), maple(?), boxwood, all kinds of valuable (heavy) treasures, as well as his daughters, his harem, his male and female musicians, (which) he had (them) bring after me to Nineveh, my royal city. To pay tribute and to accept (lit., do) servitude he dispatched his messengers.

Fourth campaign. Against Bit-Iakin, lower Babylonia (Col. HI, II. 50-74)

241. In my fourth campaign, Assur, my lord, gave me courage, and I mustered my numerous armfes and gave the command to proceed against Bit-Iakin. In the course of my campaign I accomplished the overthrow of Shuzubi, the Chaldean,—who sat in the midst of the swamps,—in the city of Bittitu. That one,—the terror (lit., ague, chills) of my battle fell upon him, and broke his courage (lit., tore his heart); like a criminal (?) he fled alone, and his place was seen no more. The front of my yoke I turned and to Bit-Iakin I took the way.

242. That (same) Merodach-baladan, whose defeat I had brought about in the course of my first campaign, and whose forces I had shattered,—the roar of my mighty arms and the onset of my terrible battle he feared and he gathered together the gods of his whole land in their shrines, and loaded them into ships and fled like a bird to the city of Nagite-rakki, which is in the midst of the sea. His brother, the seed of his father's house, whom he had left by the sea- shore, together with the rest of the people of his land, I brought out of Bit-Iakin, (from) the midst of the swamps and cane-brakes, and counted (them) as spoil. I turned about. His cities I destroyed, I devastated, I made like ruin heaps. Upon his ally, the king of Elam, I poured out terror. 243. On my return I placed on his (Merodach-baladan's) royal throne, Assur-nadin-shum, my oldest son, offspring of my loins (knees). I made subject to him the wide land of Sumer and Akkad.

Fifth campaign. Against the hill tribes east of the Tigris (Col* III, I. 75-Col IV, I 31)

244. In my fifth campaign the inhabitants5 of the cities of Tumurru, Sharum, Ezama, Kibshu, Halgidda, Kua (and) Kana, whose abodes were set on the peak of Mount Nipur, a steep mountain, like the nests of the eagle (vulture), king of birds,—(these people) were not submissive to my yoke. I had my camp pitched at the foot of Mount Nipur and with my picked bodyguard and my relentless warriors, I, like a strong wild-ox, went before them (led the way). Gullies, mountain torrents and waterfalls, dangerous cliffs, I surmounted in my sedan chair. Where it was too steep for my chair, I advanced on foot. Like a young gazelle I mounted the high(est) peaks in pursuit of them. Wherever my knees gave out, I sat down on (some) mountain bowlder and drank the cold water from the water skin (to quench) my thirst. To the summits of the mountains I pursued them and brought about their over- throw. Their cities I captured and I carried off their spoil; I destroyed, I devastated, I burned (them) with fire.

243. The front of my yoke I turned. Against Maniae, king of the city of Ukku, of the land of Daie, who was not submissive, I took the road. Before my day, none of the kings who lived before me had (ever) traveled the unblazed trails and wearisome paths which (stretch) along these rugged mountains. At the foot of Mount Anara and Mount Uppa, mighty mountains, I had my camp pitched, and I, on a house chair, together with my seasoned warriors, made my wearisome way through their narrow passes and with great difficulty climbed to the highest peak of the mountains. That Maniae saw the clouds of dust raised by the feet of my armies, abandoned Ukku, his royal city, and fled to distant parts. I besieged Ukku, I captured (it) and took away its spoil. All kinds of goods and merchandise, the treasure of his palace, I carried away from it, and counted as booty. Fur- thermore, 33 cities within the bounds of his province I cap- tured. People, asses, cattle and sheep, I carried away from them as spoil. I destroyed, I devastated and I burned (them) with fire.

Sixth campaign. Second expedition against Bit-Iakin (Col. IV, ll. 32-53)

246. In my sixth campaign the rest of the people of Bit- Iakin, who had run off before my powerful weapons like wild asses, who had gathered together the gods of their whole land in their shrines, had crossed the great sea of the rising sun and in the city of Nagitu of Elam had established their abodes;— in Hittite (Syrian) ships I crossed the sea (against them). Nagitu, Nagitu-di'bina, together with the (lands of) Hilmu, Pillatu and Hupapanu, provinces of Elam, I conquered. The people of Bit-Iakin, together with their gods, and the people of the king of Elam, I carried off,—not a rebel (lit., sinner) escaped. I had them embarked in vessels, brought over to this side, and started on the way to Assyria. The cities which were in those provinces I destroyed, I devastated, I burned with fire. To mounds and ruins I turned (them). 247. On my return march Shuzubu, the Babylonian, who during an uprising in the land had turned to himself the rule of Sumer and Akkad,—I accomplished his defeat in a battle of the plain (open battle). I seized him alive with my (own) hands, I threw him into bonds and fetters of iron and brought him to Assyria. The king of Elam, who had gone over to his side and had aided him, I defeated. His forces I scattered and I shattered his host.

Seventh campaign. Against Elam {Col. IV, /. 54—Col. V, L16)

248. In my seventh campaign Assur, my lord, supported me, and I advanced against Elam. Bit-Ha'iri (and) Rasa, cities on the border of Assyria, which the Elamite had seized by force during the time of my father,—in the course of my campaign I conquered and I despoiled them. I settled my garrisons therein, and restored them to the borders of As- syria. I placed them under (lit, in the hand of) the comman- dant of Der. (The cities of) Bub6, Dunni-Shamash, Bit-Risia, Bit-ahlame, Duru, Kalte-Sulai, Shilibtu, Bit-Asusi, Kar-Z£r- ikisha, Bit-Gissi, Bit-Katpalani, Bit-Imbia, Ham&nu, Bit- Arrabi, Burutu, Dimtu-sha-Sulai, Dimtu-sha-Mar-biti-etir, Harri-ashlake, Rabbai, Rasu, Akkabarina, Til-Uhuri, Ham- ranu, Naditu, together with the cities of the passes of the cities of Bit-Bunaki, Til-Humbi, Dimtu-sha-Dume-ilu, Bit- Ubia, Balti-lishir, Tagab-lishir, Shanakidate, the lower Masutu, Sar-hudiri, Alum-sha-belit-biti, Bit-Ahe-iddina, II- teuba, 34 strong cities, together with the small cities of their environs, which were countless, I besieged, I conquered, I despoiled, I destroyed, I devastated, I burned with fire, with the smoke of their conflagration I covered the wide heavens like a hurricane.

249. The Elamite, Kudur-nahundu, heard of the over- throw of his cities, terror overwhelmed him, the (people of) the rest of his cities he brought into the strongholds. He him- self left Madaktu, his royal city, and took his way to the city of Haidala which is in the distant mountains. I gave the word to march against Madaktu, his royal city.

250. The month of rain set in (with) extreme cold and the heavy storms sent down rain upon rain and snow. I was afraid of the swollen mountain streams; the front of my yoke I turned and took the road to Nineveh.

251. At that time, at the command of Assur, my lord, Kudur-Nahundu, the king of Elam, did not live three months longer (lit., did not fill three months) but died suddenly, be- fore his appointed time (lit., on a day not of his fate). After him, Umman-menanu, who possessed neither sense nor judg- ment, his younger(?) brother, sat on his throne.

Eighth campaign. Against Elam; the battle of HaluU (Col. V, I. 17-C0L VI, I. 35)

252. In my eighth campaign, after Shuzubu had revolted, and the Babylonians, wicked devils, had closed the city gates,—their hearts planning resistance; Shuzubu, the Chal- dean, a weakling hero, who had no knees, a slave, subject to the governor of the city of Lahiri,—about him there gathered the fugitive Arameans, the runaway, the murderer, the rob- ber. Into the marshes they descended and made rebellion. But I surrounded him completely. I pressed him to the life. Through fear and hunger he fled to Elam. When plotting and treachery were (hatched) against him (there), he has- tened from Elam and entered Shuanna.6 The Babylonians placed him on the throne,—for which he was not fitted, and intrusted to him the government of Sumer and Akkad. The treasury of the temple Esagila they opened and the gold and silver belonging to Bel (Marduk) and Sarpanit, the property of the temple(s) of their gods they brought forth and to Umman-menanu, king of Elam, who possessed neither sense nor judgment, they sent it as a bribe (saying): "Gather thy army, prepare thy camp, haste to Babylon, come to our aid (lit., stand at our side), for thou art our trust." That Elamite, whose cities I had conquered and turned into ruins on my former campaign against Elam, without thinking (lit., his heart did not consider) received the bribes from them, gath- ered his army and camp, collected (his) chariots and wagons, hitched (his) horses and mules to them. The lands of Parsu- ash, Anzan, Pasheru, Ellipi, the tribes of Iazan, Lakabra, Harzunu, Dummuku, Sulai, Samuna, the son of Merodach- baladan, the lands of Bit-Adini, Bit-Amukkanu, Bit-Sillana, Bit-Salatutu-akki, the city of Lahiru, the tribes of Pukudu, Gambulum, Halatum, Ru'fta, Ubulum, Malahu, Rapiku, Hindaru, Damunu,—an enormous host of allies he called to his side. The masses of them took the road to Akkad. Draw- ing nigh to Babylon, they exchanged courtesies with Shuzu- bu, the Chaldean king of Babylon, and brought their host to a stand. Like the onset of the locust swarms (many locusts) of the springtime they kept steadily coming on against me to offer battle. With the dust of their feet covering the wide heavens, like a mighty storm with (its) masses of dense (lit, pregnant) clouds, they drew up in battle array before me by (in) the city of Halule, on the bank of the Tigris. They blocked my passage and offered battle.

253. As for me,—to Assur, Sin, Shamash, Bel, Nabft, Nergal, Ishtar of Nineveh, Ishtar of Arbela, the gods in whom I trust, I prayed for victory over the mighty foe. They speedily gave ear to my prayers and came to my aid. Like a Hon I raged. I put on (my) coat of mail. (My) helmet, em- blem of victory (battle), I placed upon my head. My great battle chariot, which brings low the foe, I hurriedly mounted in the anger of my heart. The mighty bow which Assur had given me, I seized in my hands; the javelin, piercing to the life, I grasped. Against all of the hosts of wicked enemies, I raised my voice (lit., cried out), rumbling like a storm. Like Adad I roared.

254. At the word of Assur, the great lord, my lord, on flank and front I pressed upon the enemy like the onset of a raging storm. With the weapons of Assur, my lord, and the terrible onset of my attack, I stopped their advance, I suc- ceeded in surrounding them (or, turning them back), I decimated the enemy host with arrow and spear. All of their bodies I bored through like a sieve(?). Humbanundasha, the field-marshal of the king of Elam, a trustworthy man, com- mander of his armies, his chief support, together with his nobles, who wear the golden girdle dagger and whose hands (wrists) are encircled with heavy (thick?) rings of shining gold,—like fat steers who have hobbles put on them,—- speedily I cut them down and established their defeat. I cut their throats like lambs. I cut off their precious lives (as one cuts) a string. Like the many waters of a storm, I made (the contents of) their gullets and entrails run down upon the wide earth. My prancing steeds harnessed for my riding, plunged into the streams of their blood as (into) a river. The wheels of my war chariot, which brings low the wicked and the evil, were bespattered with blood and filth. With the bodies of their warriors I filled the plain, like grass. (Their) testicles I cut off, and tore out their privates like the seeds of cucumbers of Simdnu (June). Their hands I cut off. The heavy (?) rings of brightest gold (and) silver which (they had) on their wrists I took away. With sharp swords I pierced their belts and seized the girdle daggers of gold and silver which (they carried) on their persons. The rest of his nobles, together with Nabfr- shum-ishkun, son of Merodach-baladan, who had taken fright at (before) my onslaught and had gone over to their side, (these) my hands seized in the midst of the battle. The chariots and their horses, whose riders had been slain at the beginning of the terrible onslaught, and who had been left to themselves, kept running back and forth (lit., going and returning) for a distance of two beru (''double-hours")?—I put an end to their (the riders') fighting. That Umman-menanu, king of Elam, together with the king of Babylon (and) the princes of Chaldea, who had gone over to his side, the terror of my bat- tle overpowered them (lit., their bodies) like a bull. They abandoned their tents and to save their lives they trampled the bodies of their (fallen) soldiers, they fled like young pigeons that are pursued. They were beside themselves (lit., their hearts were torn) they held back(?)7 their urine, but let their dung go into their chariots. In pursuit of them I dis- patched my chariots and horses after them. Those among them who had escaped, who had fled for their lives, wherever they (my charioteers) met them, they cut them down with the sword.

Here follows a building inscription. See § 423.

II. THE ACCOUNT OF THE FIRST CAMPAIGN

255. The earliest of Sennacherib's records, a cylinder, now in the British Museum (No. 113,203), contains the account of the first cam- paign only. It was presumably written soon after the event. The text is published in Sidney Smith, The First Campaign of Sennacherib.

256. Sennacherib, the great king, the mighty king, king of Assyria, king without a rival; prayerful shepherd (ruler), worshiper of the great gods; guardian of the right, lover of justice, who lends support, who comes to the aid of the needy, who turns (his thoughts) to pious deeds; perfect hero, mighty man, first among all princes, the flame that consumes the in- submissive, who strikes the wicked with the thunderbolt;— the god Assur, the great mountain, has intrusted to me an unrivaled kingship and above all those who dwell in palaces has made powerful my weapons.8

257. At the beginning of my reign, when I solemnly took my seat on the throne, and ruled the inhabitants of Assyria with mercy and grace, Merodach-baladan, king of Baby- lonia, (whose heart is wicked), an instigator of revolt, plotter of rebellion (lit., belly, mind, of rebellion), doer of evil, whose guilt is heavy, brought over to his side Shutur-Nahundu, the Elamite, and gave him gold, silver and precious stones, and (so) secured him as an ally. Imbappa, turtan of the king of Elam, Tannanu, the second in command, 10 (division-) commanders, together with Nergal-nasir, the Sutean, who was fearless in battle, 80,000 bowmen, horses which were with them, he sent to Sumer and Akkad (Babylonia) to his aid. And that [Merodach-baladan], the cities of . . . . Ur, Eridu, Kullab, Kissik, Nimid-Laguda, the lands of Bit- Iakin, Bit-Amukkani, Bit-Salli, Bit-Dakkuri, all the Chal- deans, as many as there were, who (dwell) on the shore of [the Salt Sea], the tribes of Tu'muna, Rihihu, Ubudu, Iadakku, Kipre, Malihu, who (dwell) on the bank of [the Tigris], the tribes of Gurumu, Ubulu, Damunu, Gambulu, Hindaru, Ru'ua, Pukudu, who (dwell) on the bank of [the Uknu], the tribes of Hamranu, Hagaranu, Nabatu, Li'tau, Arameans who are not submissive, who know no rest,9 the cities of Nippur, . . . Borsippa, Kutha, all of Babylonia, he gathered together and marshaled for the fight.

258. To me, Sennacherib, whose heart is exalted, they reported these evil deeds; I raged like a lion, and gave the command to march into Babylonia against him. That evil prop of the devil heard of my march to battle, and the horse and bowmen of the Elamites, the Arameans, and the Chal- deans, together with Nergal-nasir and the ten (division-) commanders of Elam, who know no rest,9 who had with them a countless host,—the organization of these he perfected (strengthened), brought them all into Kutha, and (there) had a watch kept on the progress of my campaign. Meanwhile9 I had my teams (yokes) prepared, on the twentieth day of Shabdtu I set out from Assur ahead of my army, like a mighty bull; I did not wait for my army, I did not hold back. My general (and) governors I sent on to Kish, ahead of me, (with the order): "Take the road against Merodach-baladan, do not hold back, keep a close watch over him (lit., strengthen his guard)." That one saw my governors and with all of his troops sallied out of the gate of Zamama and did battle with my captains in the plain of Kish. As for my captains, the enemy's onset of battle against them was mighty and they could not stand before him. They sent their messengers for help to me (while I was) in the neighborhood of Kutha.

259. In the anger of my heart I made an assault upon Kutha; the troops about its walls I slaughtered like lambs and took the city. The horse and bowmen of the Elamite, the Arameans (and) the Chaldeans, the (division-) com- manders of the Tang1 of Elam, as well as Nergal-nasir, to- gether with the citizens, the rebels (lit., sinners), I brought forth and counted as spoil. I raged like a lion, I stormed like a tempest, with my merciless warriors I set my face against Merodach-baladan, (who was) in Kish. And that worker of iniquity saw my advance from afar; terror fell upon him, he forsook all of his troops, and fled to the land of Guzummanu. Tann£nu, together with the armies of Elamites, Chaldeans, and Arameans, who had stood at his side (espoused his cause) and had come to his aid,—their defeat I accomplished and I shattered his forces. Adinu, son of the wife of Merodach- baladan, together with Baskanu, brother of Iati'e queen of the Arabs, along with their armies, I seized as living captives. The chariots, wagons, horses, mules, asses, camels, and (Bactrian) camels, which had been abandoned during the battle, my hands captured.

260. In joy of heart and with a radiant face I hastened to Babylon and entered the palace of Merodach-baladan, to take charge of the property and goods (laid up) therein. I opened his treasure-house. Gold, silver, vessels of gold and silver, precious stones, beds, house chairs, palanquins, his royal standards(P), whose inlay was of gold and silver, all kinds of property and goods, and without number,—an enor- mous treasure,—his wife, his harem, his slave girls(?), his officials, his nobles, his courtiers, the male and female musi- cians, the palace slaves, who gladdened his princely mind, all of the artisans, as many as there were, his palace meni- als (?),—(these) I brought forth and counted as spoil. I hur- ried after him, sent my warriors to Guzummanu, into the midst of the swamps and marshes and they searched for him for five days, but his (hiding)-place was not found. The rest of his horses and troops, who were exhausted, who had fled from him like hinds and had not gone with him, I gathered from the midst of plain and highland.

261. In the course of my march the cities Amatu, Hauae, Supabu, Nukabu, Bit-Sannabi, Kutain, Kidrina, D&r-Ladini, Bitati, Banitu, the land of Guzummanu, the cities of Dur- Iansuri, Dftr-Abiata', Dur-Rudumme, Blt-Rah6, Hapisha, Sadi-ilu, Hurudu, Sahrina, Iltuk, Allallu, Marad, Iakimuna, Kubruna, Blt-Kudurri, Suka-Marusi, in all 33 strong, walled cities of Bit-Dakkuri with 250 small cities (hamlets) within their borders; the cities Dur-Appe, DAr-Tane, Dtir-Sama', Sarrabatu, Salahatu, Dur-Abdai, Sappihimari, Sibtu-sha- Makkame, in all 8 strong, walled cities of Bit-Sa'alli, with 120 hamlets within their borders; the cities Sapia, Sarrabanu, Larak, Parak-marri, Bit-Ilu-bani, Ahudu, Sha-issur-Adad, Shaharratu, Manahhu, Sha-amel&, Dftr-Akkia, Nagitu, Nur-abinu, Harsuarra, D&r-Rukbi, Dandahulla, Dftr-Bir- Dada, Bit-ri'e, D&r-Ugurri, Hindaina, Dftr-Uait, Bit-Taur&, Saphuna, Buharru, Harbe-Iddina, Harbe-Kalbi, Shabarre, Bit-Bani-iltia, Suladu, Bit-Iltamasama',Bit-Dini-ilu,Dakala, Hameza, Bela, Tairu, Kipranu, Iltaratu, Akam-shakina, Sagabatu-sha-Mardukia, in all 39 strong, walled cities of Bit - Amukkani, with 350 hamlets within their borders; the cities Bit-Zakudia, Larsa, Kullab, Eridu, Kissik, Nimid-Laguda, Dtir-Iakini and Kar-Nabti, which is (are) beside the Salt Sea (the Persian Gulf), in all 8 strong, walled cities of Bit- Iakin, with 100 hamlets within their borders; a (grand) total of 88 strong, walled cities of Chaldea, with 820 hamlets within their borders, I besieged, I conquered, I carried away their spoil. The grain and dates which were in their planta- tions, their harvest of the plain, I had my army devour. (Their towns) I destroyed, I devastated, I burned with fire, I turned them into forgotten tells.

262. The Urbi (Arabs), Arameans, Chaldeans, who were in Uruk, Nippur, Kish, Harsagkalamma, together with the citizens, the rebels (sinners), I brought forth and counted as spoil. The grain and dates which were in their plantations, the planting of their garden beds, the harvest of their plain and highlands(?) I had my troops devour.

263. Bel-ibni, son of a master-builder, a scion of Shuanna, who had grown up in my palace like a young hound, I placed over them as rking of Akkad and Sumer1.

264. On my return march, the tribes of Tu'muna, Rihihu, Iadakku, Ubudu, Kipre, [Malihu, Gurumu,] Ubulu, Da- munu, Gambulu, Hindaru, Ru'fia, Pukudu, Hamranu, Hagaranu, Nabatu, Li'tau,—Arameans, who were not submissive, all of them, I captured, and carried off as spoil.

265. In the course of my campaign, I received the heavy tribute of Nabu-bel-shumate, governor of Hararati,—gold, silver, great mulberry(musukkani) trees, asses, camels, cattle and sheep.

266. The inhabitants (subjects) of the city of Hirimmu, evil enemies, who from of old had not submitted to any of the kings, my fathers, I slew with the sword. Not a soul escaped. That district I reorganized: 1 ox, 10 lambs, 10 homers of wine, 20 homers of dates, its choicest, as standing dues for the gods of Assyria, my lords, I established for all time.

267. I returned to Assyria with 208,000 captive people, a huge spoil, 7,200 horses and mules, 11,073 asses, 5,230 camels, 80,050 cattle, 800,100 ewes.—This does not include the men, asses, camels, cattle and sheep which my troops had carried off and parceled out among themselves.—And the enemy citizens, strong and prouc^ who had not submitted to my yoke, I cut down with the sword and hung on stakes.

Here follows the earliest account of the building of the "Palace without a Rival" see §§ 363.

III. THE ACCOUNT OF CAMPAIGNS 1 AND 2

268. The so-called "Bellino Cylinder" of the British Museum, published in Layard, Inscriptions, Plates 63 f., and Smith, History of Sennacherib, pp. 1 f., 24 f., 43 f., 140 f., contains the record of the first and second campaigns. It is dated in the eponymy of Nabu-liu (702 B.C.).

269. Sennacherib, etc. (Introduction like that of preceding inscription.)

First campaign (IL 5-19)

270. At the beginning of my kingship, I brought about the overthrow of Merodach-baladan, king of Babylonia, to- gether with the armies of Elam, in the plain of Kish. In the midst of that battle he forsook his camp, made his escape alone, fled to Guzummanu, went into the swamps and marshes, and (thus) saved his life. The chariots, wagons, horses, mules, asses, camels and (Bactrian) camels which he had forsaken at the onset of battle, my hands seized. Into his palace in Babylon I entered joyfully and I opened his treas- ure-house;—gold, silver, vessels of gold and silver, precious stones of all kinds, goods and property, an enormous (heavy) treasure, his wife, his harem, his courtiers and attendants, all of his artisans, as many as there were, his palace servants, I brought out, I counted as spoil, I seized.

271. I sent my soldiers after him to Guzummanu, into the midst of the swamps and marshes, and for five days they hunted him, but his (hiding-) place was not found (lit., seen).

272. In the might of Assur, my lord, 89 of the strong, walled cities of Chaldea, and 8^p small cities (hamlets) of their environs, I besieged, I conquered, I carried off their spoil. The Arabs, Arameans and Chaldeans who were in Uruk, Nippur, Kish, Harsagkalamma, Kutha, together with the citizens (of these places), the rebels (sinners), I brought out, I counted as spoil.

273. Bel-ibni, the son of a master-builder, a scion of Shuanna (Babylon), who had grown up in my palace like a young hound, I set over them as king of Sumer and Akkad.

274. On my return march, the tribes of the Tu'muna, Rihihu, Iadakku, Ubudu, KiprS, Malihu, Gurumu, Ubulu, Damunu, Gambulu, Hindaru, Ru'tia, Pukudu, Hamranu, Hagaranu, Nabatu, Li'tau,—Arameans (who were) not sub- missive, all of them, I conquered. 208,000 people, male and female, 7,200 horses and mules, 11,703 asses, 5,230 camels, 80,100 cattle, 800,509 sheep, an enormous spoil, I carried off to Assyria.

275. In the course of my campaign, I received from Nabu- bel-shumate, governor of the city of Hararate, gold, silver, great mulberry (musukkani) trees, asses, camels, cattle and sheep, as his onerous contribution.

276. The inhabitants (subjects) of the city of Hirimme, wicked enemies, who from of old had not submitted to my yoke, I cut down with the sword. Not a soul escaped. That district (province) I reorganized: 1 ox, 10 lambs, 10 homers of wine, 20 homers of dates, its choicest, (as gifts) for the gods of Assyria, my lords, I established for all time.

Second campaign (ll. 20-33)

277, In my second campaign Assur, my lord, encouraged me, and against the land of the Kassites and the land of the Iasubigallai, wicked enemies, who from of old had not been submissive to the kings, my fathers, I marched. In the midst of the high mountains I rode on horseback, where the terrain was difficult, and had my chariot drawn up with ropes; where it became too steep, I clambered up on foot like the wild-ox. Bit-Kilamzah, their stronghold I besieged, I captured. Peo- ple, great and small, horses, mules, asses, cattle and sheep, I brought out from its midst and counted as booty. Their small cities, which were numberless, I destroyed, I devastated, I turned into ruins. The houses of the steppe (namely) the tents for their protection (i.e., wherein they dwelt), I set on fire and turned them into (a mass of) flames. I turned round, and made that Bit-Kilamzah into a fortress,—I made its defenses stronger than they had ever been before, and settled therein people of the lands my hands had conquered.

278. The people of the land of Kassites and the land of the Iasubigallai, who had fled before my arms, I brought down out of the mountains and settled them in the cities of Hardishpi and Bit-Kubatti. Into the hand(s) of my official, the governor of Arrapha, I placed (lit., counted) them. I had a stele made, and the might of my conquering hand which I had established upon them, I had inscribed thereon. In the midst of the city I set it up.

279. The front of my yoke I turned (i.e., I turned about) and took the road to the land of the Ellipi. Before me (i.e., my approach) Ispabara, their king, forsook his strong cities, his treasure cities, and fled to distant (parts). Over the whole of his wide land I swept like a hurricane. The cities of Mara- bishti and Akkuddu, his royal residence cities, together with 34 strong cities and the small cities of their environs, which were without number, I destroyed, I devastated, I burned with fire. Their orchards I cut down, over their fertile(?) fields I poured out misery. The Ellipi, in their totality, I brought to naught. The people, great and small, male and female, horses, mules, asses, cattle and sheep, without num- ber, I carried off and brought them to naught.

280. Sisirtu and Kummahlum, strong cities, together with the small cities of their environs, the district (province) of Blt-Barru in its totality, I cut off from his land and added it to the territory {lit., border) of Assyria.

281. Elenzash I turned into the royal city and strong- hold of that district. I changed its former name, calling its (new) name Kar-Sin-ahe-eriba.

282. On my return I received the heavy tribute of the distant Medes, whose name no one among the kings, my fathers, had (ever) heard; to the yoke of my rule I made them submit.

{For the building inscription which follows see § § 372 f. )

IV. RECORDS WRITTEN AFTER THE THIRD CAMPAIGN

283. The annals as they appeared after the third campaign are found on the Rassam Cylinder of the British Museum, published in part by Evetts in ZA, III, 311 f. It is dated in the eponymy of Mutunu (700 B.C.). This text, with the exception of the closing paragraph, became the standard for campaigns 1-3 of all the later editions of the annals. The reader is therefore referred to §§ 232 f. for the translation of all but the concluding paragraph of the account of the third cam- paign which is here given:

284. (In addition to the) 30 talents of gold, 800 talents of silver, (there were) gems (precious stones), antimony, jewels(?), great sandu-stones (carnelian?), ivory beds, house chairs of ivory, elephant's hides, ivory (elephant's tusks, teeth), maple, boxwood, colored (woolen) garments, garments of linen, violet and purple wool, vessels of copper, iron, bronze and lead, iron, chariots, shields, lances, armor, girdle daggers of iron, bows and arrows, spears, countless implements of war, together with his daughters, his palace women, his male and female musicians (which) he had (them) bring after me to Nineveh, my royal city. To pay tribute and to render servitude, he dispatched his messenger(s).

284a. From the booty of those lands which I plundered, 10,000 bows, 10,000 shields I took therefrom and added them to my royal equipment. The rest, the heavy spoil of enemy (captives), I divided like sheep among my whole camp (army) as well as my governors and the inhabitants of my large cities.

{For the building inscription which followed see §§ 379 f.)

V. RECORDS WRITTEN AFTER THE FIFTH CAMPAIGN

285. On a British Museum prism, No. 103,000, published in CT, XXVI, Plates 1-37, we have, in addition to the standard record of campaigns 1-5 (see §§ 233 f. for translation), the account of two campaigns conducted by Sennacherib's generals. The prism is dated in the eponymy of Ilu-ittia of Damascus (694 B.C.).

I. ACCOUNT OF TWO CAMPAIGNS

a) Campaign against Cilicia, 696 B.C. {Col. IV, ll. 61-91)

286. In the eponymy of Shulmu-bel, the governor of Rimusi, Kirua, prefect of the city of Illubru, a slave, subject to me, whom his gods forsook, caused the men of Hilakku (Cilicia) to revolt, and made ready for battle. The people who dwelt in Ingirra and Tarzi (Tarsus) came to his aid {lit, side) and seized the Kue (Cilician) road, blocking traffic.

287. Bowmen, bearers of shield and lance, chariots, horses, my royal host, I sent against them. The defeat of the men of Hilakku who had come to his aid, they brought about in the midst of a difficult mountain. Ingira and Tarzi they took and carried off their spoil. That one they besieged in Illubru, his stronghold, and prevented his escape. With the assault of siege engines, and "great wall flies" (some siege engine), by breaches(P), with the rush and attack of the foot soldiers, they brought about their overthrow and took the city.

288. Kirua, the prefect, together with the spoil of his cities, and the people of Hilakku, who had come to his aid, with asses, cattle and sheep, they brought to Nineveh into my presence.

289. I flayed Kirua. I rebuilt IUubru; people of the lands my hands had conquered I settled therein. The weapon (symbol) of Assur, my lord, I established in its midst. An alabaster stele I had (them) fashion and set up before him (Assur or the "weapon" of Assur).

b) Campaign against Til-garimmu, 6Q$ B.C. (Col. V> ll.1-22)

290. In the eponymy of Assur-bel-usur, the governor of against Til-garimmu, a city on the border of Tabalu 1 , whose kingdom Hidi had consolidated, I leveled my weapons. Bowmen, bearers of shield and lance, chariots, horses, my royal host, I sent against him. That city I be- sieged, and by the throwing up of earth(works) and the as- sault of siege engines, by the rush and attack of foot soldiers, they captured the city.

291. The people, together with the gods rdwelling there], I counted as spoil. That city [they destroyed], they devas- tated, to mounds and ruins they turned it.

292. From the spoil of the lands which I plundered, 30,000 bows(?) shields, I gathered from [among them] and added them r to my royal equipment], [The rest of the heavy spoil of the foe1 [among the whole of my camp], my provincial governors, [and the people of my large cities1, I divided [like sheep].

2. THE JP&Dt DAGH INSCRIPTION

293. On the rock walls of the Judl D&gh, Sennacherib carved the account of the raid which appears in the final edition of the annals as the fifth campaign (see King, PSBA, XXXV, 66 f.).

294. Assur, Sin, Shamash, Adad, Urta (MASH), and Ishtar, the great gods, who stand at the side of the king, their favorite, and "make bitter" his arms against all enemies: Sennacherib, the great king, the mighty king, king of the uni- verse, king of Assyria, the exalted prince, to whom your (the gods') hands are stretched out, 1 who through your grace ad- vances [triumphantly], bringing in submission at his feet insubmissive lands (v., kings) and unyielding mountain peoples.

295. At that time the cities of Tumurra, Sharim, Hal- gidda, Kibsha, Esama, K&a (and) Kana, which are on the border of Kutmuhu (Commagene) and, like the nest of the eagle, are situated upon the peaks of Mount Nipur; who from days of old, in (the time of) the kings, my fathers, were strong and proud, not knowing the fear of (Assyrian) rule,—in the time of my rule, their gods deserted them and left them emp- ty . . . . from the sources the Tigris, to Assyria, the Assyrians(?) . . . . they sank in the river against them I went.

296. (At) the foot of Mount Nipur I pitched my camp and I my choice warriors who fight my battle(s). Mount Nipur for I besieged. Gullies, moun- tain torrents [I surmounted in my (sedan) chair], to the high (est) summits, which the stars of heaven . . . . . . to on my (sedan) chair like a wild bull r I went before them10. Where it was too steep for my (sedan) chair, I advanced on foot like a young gazelle (ibex). Where my knees gave out, I sat down on (some) mountain bowlder and drank the cold water from the water skin (to quench) my thirst those cities I besieged, I conquered (v. adds, I carried off their booty, I destroyed), I devastated their rebellious people on (to) the top of Mount Nipur I . . . . their . • • . ; to the mountain tops, I pursued and defeated them.

297. A memorial stele I caused to be made, and I had them inscribe (thereon) the might and power of Assur, my lord. On the summit of Mount Nipur where 'I set it up'.

298. Whoever destroys 1 the writing of my name, may Assur and the great gods look upon him [in anger] and de- stroy him.

VI. RECORDS WRITTEN AFTER THE SIXTH CAMPAIGN

299. A bull inscription (1) from the palace at Nineveh, published in IIIR, Plates 12 f., has some very interesting additions to the record of the earlier campaigns, besides giving the fullest account of the sixth. A shorter bull inscription (2) is published in Smith, History of Sen- nacherib, pp. 3 f., 30 f., 51 f., 67 f., 80 f., %% f.

300. 1. Palace of Sennacherib, the great king, the mighty king, king of the universe, king of Assyria, king of the four quarters (of the world); favorite of the great gods; the wise and crafty one; strong hero, first among all princes; the flame that consumes the insubmissive, who strikes the wicked with the thunderbolt. Assur, the great god, has intrusted to me an unrivaled kingship, and has made powerful my weapons above (all) those who dwell in palaces. From the upper sea of the setting sun to the lower sea of the rising sun, all princes of the four quarters (of the world) he has brought in submis- sion to my feet.

First campaign

301. In my first campaign I accomplished the defeat of Merodach-baladan, king of Babylonia, together with the armies of Elam, his ally, in the plain of Kish. That one fled alone to save his life, and the chariots, wagons, horses and mules which he abandoned, my hands captured. Into his palace in Babylon I entered and I opened his treasure-house, —gold, silver, vessels of gold and silver, precious stones, property and goods of his palace I took as spoil. His strong, walled cities of Chaldea, together with the small cities of their environs, I captured, I carried off their spoil.

302. On my return I conquered the Arameans who lived along the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates, and carried off their spoil.

303. In the progress of my campaign I received the heavy tribute of the governor of Hararati. The men of Hirimme, wicked enemies, I cut down with the sword. Not one es- caped. That city I rebuilt: 1 ox, 10 lambs, 10 homers of wine, 20 homers of dates, its choicest, (as gifts) for the gods of Assyria, I appointed.

Second campaign

304. In my second campaign I went against the Kassites and the Iasubigallai. In the midst of the mountains I rode on horseback where the terrain was difficult, and where it be- came too difficult (for this) I clambered up on foot like a wild-ox. Bit-Kilamzah, Hardishpi, Bit-Kubatti, their strong, walled cities, I captured, I carried off their spoil, and the small cities of their environs, which were numberless, I de- stroyed, I devastated. The houses of the plain, their tents, I burned with fire.

305. I turned back, and that Bit-Kilamzah I made into a stronghold. People of the lands which my hand had con- quered, I settled therein, and placed them under (lit., counted them into the hand of) the governor of Arrapha.

306. I turned the front of my yoke and took the road against the Elippi. Before me Ispabara, their king, forsook his strong cities, and fled to distant parts. Marubishti and Akkuddu, his royal residence cities, together with the cities of their environs, I captured, I carried off their spoil; I de- stroyed, I devastated, I burned (them) with fire.

307. Sisirtu, Kummahlum, strong cities, together with the small cities of their environs, I captured. The district of Bit-Barru in its totality I cut off from his land and added it to the territory of Assyria. Elenzash I turned into the strong- hold of that district. I changed its name, and called it Kar- Sin-ahe-eriba. Peoples of the land which my hands had con- quered, I settled therein, and placed it under the governor of Harhar.

308. On my return I received the gifts of the distant Medes, the name of whose land the kings, my fathers had not heard, and I made them submit to my yoke.

Third campaign

309. In my third campaign I went against the Hittite- land. Lull, king of Sidon,—my terrifying splendor overcame him, and from Tyre he fled to ladnana (Cyprus) in the midst of the sea, and died. Tuba'lu I placed on his royal throne, (and) imposed my kingly tribute upon him.

310. The kings of Amurru, all of them, brought their heavy tribute before me in the neighborhood of the city of UshCi, and Sidka, king of Ashkelon, who had not submitted to my yoke,—the gods of his father's house, himself, to- gether with [his] family, I tore up and carried away to Assyria. Sharru-lu-dari, son of Rukibti, their [former] king, I placed [over the people of] Ashkelon, and imposed my royal tribute upon him.

311. In the course of my campaign I captured his cities, which had not submitted at my feet, I carried off their spoil. The governors and people of Amkaruna (Ekron), who had thrown into iron fetters Padi, their king, who was bound by oath to Assyria, and had given him to Hezekiah, the Jew,— he kept him in confinement,—they became afraid, and ap- pealed (for aid) to the Egyptian kings, the bowmen, the chariots and horses of the king of Meluhha, a countless host. In the plain of Altakft (Eltekeh) I fought with them, I de- feated them. The charioteers and Egyptian princes, together with the charioteers of the king of Meluhha, I captured alive with my (own) hand.

312. I drew near to Amkaruna. The governors who had rebelled (committed sin) I slew with the sword. The citizens who had rebelled (sinned) I counted as spoil. The rest of them, who were guiltless, I pardoned. Padl, their king, I brought out of Jerusalem and placed on the throne over them. My royal tribute I imposed upon him. As for Heze- kiah, the Jew, who had not submitted to my yoke, 46 of his strong, walled cities and the cities of their environs, which were numberless, I besieged, I captured, I plundered, as booty I counted them. Him, like a caged bird, in Jerusalem, his royal city, I shut up. Earthworks I threw up about it. His cities which I plundered, I cut off from his land and gave to the kings of Ashdod, Ashkelon, Ekron and Gaza; I dimin- ished his land. To the former tribute, I imposed the payment of yearly gifts by them, as tax, and laid it upon him. That Hezekiah,—the terrifying splendor of my royalty overcame him, and the Arabs and his picked troops whom he had brought into Jerusalem, his royal city, ran away (took leave). With 30 talents of gold, 800 talents of silver and all kinds of treasure from his palace, he sent his daughters, his palace women, his male and female singers, to Nineveh, and he dis- patched his messengers to pay the tribute.

Fourth campaign

313. In my fourth campaign I went against the land of Bit-Iakin. In the course of my campaign, I defeated Shuzu- bu, the Chaldean, who dwelt in the midst of the marshes, at Bittutu. That one feared my weapons, fled alone, and his (hiding-) place has not been found (seen).

314, The front of my yoke I turned, and took the road to Bit-Iakin. That Merodach-baladan, whom I defeated in my first campaign, became afraid at the tumult of my mighty arms, and fled to Nagitu which is in the midst of the sea (Persian Gulf). His brothers, the seed of his father's house, whom he abandoned by the seashore, the rest of the people of his land, I carried off as spoil from Bit-Iakin, out of the swamps and marshes.

315. I turned about and destroyed his cities, I burned them with fire. On my return, I placed my son Assur-nadin- shum on his royal throne, and made (the land) submit to him.

Fifth campaign

316. In my fifth campaign the people of Tumurru, whose abodes are situated on the peaks of Mount Nipur, a difficult mountain, like the nests of the eagle, and who had not sub- mitted to my yoke,—at the foot of Mount Nipur I pitched my camp. With my relentless warriors, I, like a strong wild- ox, led the way. Gullies and difficult mountain torrents I surmounted in my (sedan) chair. Where it was too steep for my chair, I advanced on foot, like a young gazelle. Where my knees weakened and gave out, I sat down upon (some) mountain bowlder and drank cold water from the water skin (to quench) my thirst. To the summits of the mountains I pursued them, and brought about their overthrow. Their cities I captured and I carried off their spoil, I destroyed, I devastated, I burned (them) with fire.

317. I turned the front of my yoke. Against Maniae, king of Ukku, who was not submissive, I took the road. Among the unblazed trails and wearisome paths which stretch along these rugged mountains, none of the kings who went before me had traveled before the yoke. At the foot of Mount Anara and Mount Uppa, mighty mountains, I had my camp pitched, and I, on a house chair, together with my warriors, with difficulty climbed to the summits of the weari- some mountains. That Maniae heard of the approach of my army (lit., campaign), left Ukku, his royal city, and fled to distant parts. I entered into his palace. All kinds of property and goods, without number, I carried off,—heavy treasure (was his). His cities I destroyed, I devastated, I burned with fire, and I overwhelmed them (so that they) were like a mound (left by) the deluge.

Sixth campaign

318. In my sixth campaign against Nagitu (and) Nagitu- di'bina, cities belonging to the king of Elam, which are situ- ated (lit., whose abode is situated) on the other side the Bitter Sea (Persian Gulf), whither the people of Bit-Iakin had scattered before the mighty weapons of Assur,—leaving their towns, and crossing over the Bitter Sea, they landed (?) among them and dwelt in peaceful habitations. Assur, my lord, strengthened me, against them I ordered the march to Nagitu.

319. Hittite people,11 plunder of my bow, I settled in Nineveh. Mighty ships (after) the workmanship of their land, they built dexterously. Tyrian, Sidonian and Cyprian12 sailors, captives of my hand, I ordered (to descend) the Tigris with them and come to land at (descend to) the wharves (?) at Opis. From Opis, (where) they drew them up on land, they dragged them on sledges(?) to the Arahtu Canal(?). They launched (lit., threw) them on the Arahtu Canal. [By] the channel(?) of Bit-Nanari(?) of Chaldea, I had them descend. In the city of , the bearers(?) of my terrible weapons, who know no fear, my bodyguard of picked foot soldiers, my brave warriors, rwho know no rest 1 ,—I embarked them in the ships, and provided supplies for the journey, to- gether with grain and straw for the horses, which I embarked with them. My warriors went down the Euphrates on the ships while I kept to the dry land at their side. I had (them) proceed to Bab-salimeti. At the lifting of my head, from the bank of the Euphrates, to the shore of the sea, a journey of two double-hours, by land, all finished(?) safely And the waves of the sea And I, the word of his command did not heed In that place I pitched my camp. The mighty waves of the sea rcame up 1 and entered my tent. And they completely surrounded me while in my camp, causing all of my men to remain in the mighty ships as in cages for five days and nights. The ships of my warriors reached the swamps at the mouth of the river, where the Euphrates empties (lit., carries) its waters into the fearful sea. I met them on the shore of the Bitter Sea (the Persian Gulf).

320. To Ea, king of the deep, I offered pure sacrifices, and, together with a ship of gold, I cast into the sea a golden fish and a golden alutlu. My ships I speedily brought over to Nagitu. On the shore of the fearful sea, which for landing and loading horses, and for men to walk upon, was unsuitable, (indeed) exceedingly wearisome, the people of Chaldea, who lived at Nagitu and Nagitu-di'bina, the people of Hilmu, Pillatu and Hupapanu, saw the ships of my warriors and they gathered together bowmen, wagons, horses, mules, a count- less host, against them. By the Ulai, a river whose bank was good, the battle line was drawn up. Seizing the place where my armies were to land (lit., the landing-place of my armies), they offered battle.

321. My warriors gained the banks of the levees, against them they swarmed from the ships to the shore, like locusts, and brought about their overthrow. Nagitu, Nagitu-di'bina, Hilmu, Pillatu and Hupapanu, cities belonging to the king of Elam, they captured. Their garrisons, men of Chaldea, all the gods of Bit-Iakin, together with their goods, and the Elamites, and wagons, mules and asses, they carried off as spoil, loaded them on [their] ships and brought them over to B&b-salimeti, into my presence. Those cities they destroyed, they devasted and burned with fire. Over the wide land of Elam they poured out terror.

322. From the booty of the lands which [I had con- quered], 30,500 bows, 30,500 arrows, I selected from among them, and added to my royal equipment. From the great spoil of enemy-(captives), I apportioned (men) like sheep to all of my camp, to my governors, and to the people of my [large] cities.

323. 2. Palace of Sennacherib, the great king, the mighty king, king of the universe, king of Assyria, king of the four quarters (of the world), favorite of the great gods (am I). Assur, father of the gods, has looked upon me, among all princes, with (his) sure favor, and above all those who dwell in palaces, has made powerful my weapons.

324. In open battle (in the plain of Kish), 1 I overthrew Merodach-baladan, king of Babylonia, I deprived him of his kingdom (lit., rulership). All of the Chaldeans, together with the numerous hosts of Elamites, his allies, I cut down with the sword. Assur-nadin-shum, my first-born son, (the off- spring of my loins)1 I placed on the royal throne and made the wide land of Akkad (Babylonia) submit to him.

325. I uprooted all the Ahlamli and Sutti (Aramean tribes). The men of Hirimme I cut down with the sword and no offspring of theirs escaped. I conquered the Iasubi- gallai, treacherous enemies, overthrew the Elippi and de- stroyed their towns.

326. And Lull, king of Sidon, was afraid to fight me (lit, feared my battle) and fled to Iadnana (Cyprus), which is in the midst of the sea, and (there) sought a refuge. In that land, in terror of the weapons of Assur, my lord, he died. Tuba'lu I placed on the throne of his kingdom, and imposed upon him my royal tribute.

327. I devastated the wide province of Judah; the strong, proud Hezekiah, its king, I brought in submission to my feet.

328. The people of Tumurru, who dwell on Mount Nipur, a steep mountain, I cut down with the sword. Ukku, together with all of its towns, I destroyed (so that they were) like a mound (left) by the deluge,

329. The people of Hilakku, who dwell in the high moun- tains, I slaughtered like lambs. Til-garimmu, which is on the border of Tabalu, I captured, I turned it into a ruin. The men of Chaldea, who feared the onset of my battle, gathering together the gods of their whole land in their shrines, they crossed the sea, and settled in Nagitu. I crossed over after them in Hittite (Syrian) ships. Nagiatu, Nagiatu-di'bina. Hilmu, Pillatu and Hupapanu, provinces which are on the other side of the Bitter Sea, I conquered. And the people of Chaldea, together with their gods, the people of the king Elam, I carried off. Not a sinner escaped.

VII. RECORDS WRITTEN AFTER THE EIGHTH CAMPAIGN

330. Besides the final edition of the annals given above (§§ 233 f.), there are three other inscriptions which give a resume oi one or more of Sennacherib's eight campaigns: (1) the Bavian Inscription, published in M R , Plate 14; (2) the inscription on a slab from Nebi Yunus, pub- lished in IR, Plates 43 f.; (3) the inscription on a broken alabaster slab, published in V order asiatische Schriftdenkmaler, I, No. 77. To these must be added (4) the text Sennacherib had inscribed on a seal of Tukulti-Urta, republished by King, Chronicles Concerning Early Babylonian Kingsy pp. 163 f.

I. THE BAVIAN INSCRIPTION

331. Assur, Anu, Enlil, Ea, Sin, Shamash, Adad, Marduk, Nab A, [Nusku], Ishtar, Sibi (the Seven), the great gods, who in all lands attend (lit., raise the eye) to the rule of the black-headed (race of men), (who) named (me) ruler; Sen- nacherib, the great king, the mighty king, king of the uni- verse, king of Assyria, king of the four quarters (of the world), the prince who endows (their cults):—in their enduring grace, from the Upper Sea to the Lower Sea, I have marched in safety, and the princes of the four quarters (of the world) I have brought in submission to my feet, so that they drew my yoke.

332. At that time I greatly enlarged the site (lit., abode) of Nineveh. Its wall, and the outer wall thereof, which had not existed before, I built anew, and raised it mountain high. Its fields, which through lack of water had fallen into neglect (lit., ruin), and came to look like pitch(?), so that its people did not have (lit., know) any water for watering, but turned their eyes heavenward for showers of rain,—(these fields) I watered, and from the villages of Masiti, Banbakabna, Shap- parishu, Kar-Shamash-nasir, Kar-ntiri, Rimusa, Hata, Da- lain, Resh-eni, Sulu, Dur-[Ishtar], Shibaniba, Isparirra, Gingilinish, Nampag&te, Tillu, Alumsusi, the waters which were above the town of Hadabiti, (through) eighteen canals which I dug, I brought (lit., directed their course) into the Husur (Khosr) River. From the border of the town of Kisiri to the midst of Nineveh, I dug a canal, and brought down those waters therein. Sennacherib Channel, I called its name. And the surplus of those waters I led out through the midst of Mount Tas, a difficult mountain, on the border of Akkad. Formerly they called that canal. Now, I, at the command of Assur, the great lord, my lord, directed into it (the canal mentioned) the waters from the right and left of the mountain in whose sides are the . . . . of Me—, Kuk— (and) Biturra, towns of the neighborhood: with stone I walled that canal, and called its name Sennacherib [Channel]. In addition to the waters from springs, and the waters which I had earlier secured by digging (canals), [of these waters] I directed the course to Nineveh, the great metropolis, my royal abode, whose site since days of old, the kings, my fathers, had not enlarged, and whose adornment they had not undertaken.

333. At this time, I, Sennacherib, king of Assyria, first among all princes, who from the rising sun to the setting sun, (with) waters from the canals which I had caused to be dug, [supplied] Nineveh, together with its neigh- borhood. Gardens, vineyards, all kinds of products of all the mountains, the fruits of all lands, Iplanted(P), letting out the waters where they did not reach the thirsty (field), [and reviving] its vegetation, damaged(? by drought) . . . . of all the orchards, at the entrance above (the city) and below(?) . . . . from the midst of the town of Tar- bisi to Nineveh, providing, for all time, water for the plant- ing of grain and sesame.

334. . . . Among the kings, my sons, whoever reflects (communes with his heart) and cannot bring himself to be- lieve that with these few people I had dug the canal:—by Assur, my great lord, I take oath. If with these men I did not dig the canal, and in a year (and) three months did not com- plete its construction, then (its construction) was not fin- ished nor its excavation brought to completion.

335. To dedicate (open) that canal I sent (directed) an ashipu and a kalu priest, sandu-stone (carnelian), lapis lazuli, mushgarru, hulalu, UD-ASH-stones, precious stones, a balgi-fish, and a suhur-&sh7 the likeness of gold, herbs, choice oil, to Ea, lord of the springs, fountains and the plain(?), (and) Enbilulu, lord of rivers, the lords who answer my prayers(?), I presented as gifts. I prayed to the great gods, and they heard my prayers, and prospered the work of my hands. A canal gate (sluice gate) [I built] and the sluice valve opened by itself and supplied the water of abundance;—through the work of man's hands the sluice was not opened

336. For the heart's comfort (?) of the gods I dug water (courses). After I had planned the canal and directed its construction, to the great gods, who go at my side, and who establish prosperity, sleek oxen and fat sheep I offered as pure sacrifices.

337. Those men who dug that canal I clothed with linen (and) brightly colored (woolen) garments. Golden rings, dag- gers of gold, I put upon them.

338. In the same year with the opening (lit., flowing) of that canal which I dug, against Umman-menanu, king of Elam, and the king of Babylon, together with many kings of mountain and sea, who were their allies, in the plain of the city of Halule I drew up the battle line. At the command of Assur, the great lord, my lord, like a swift javelin I went into their midst and accomplished the defeat of their armies. Their hosts I shattered, I broke up their organization. The chieftains of the king of Elam, together with Nabu-shum- ishkun, son of Merodach-baladan, king of Babylonia, my hands took alive in that battle. As for the king of Elam and the king of Babylonia, the dread of my terrible onslaught overcame them, they forsook their chariots, and they fled from their lands to save their lives. And they did not come back. Thereupon Sennacherib became violently angry and, as he ordered (his army) to turn toward Elam, fear and terror were poured out over all of Elam. They left their land and, to save their lives, like the eagle betook themselves to the inaccessible mountain (s), and, like unto birds that one pursues, their hearts were rent. To the day of their death they did not come out (lit., open any way) nor did they make war.

339. In a second campaign of mine I advanced swiftly against Babylon, upon whose conquest I had determined. Like the on-coming of a storm I broke loose, and over- whelmed it like a hurricane.

340. I completely invested that city, with mines and engines my hands [took the city]. The plunder his powerful whether small or great, I left none. With their corpses I filled the city squares (wide places). Shuzubu, king of Babylonia, together with his family and his [nobles], I carried off alive into my land. The wealth of that city,— silver, gold, precious stones, property and goods, I doled out (counted into the hands of) to my people and they made it their own. The gods dwelling therein,—the hands of my peo- ple took them, and they smashed them. Their property and goods they seized.

341. Adad and Shala, the gods of the city of Ekallate, whom Marduk-nadin-ahe, king of Babylon, in the reign of Tiglath-pileser, king of Assyria, had seized and carried off to Babylon, after 418 years I brought them to their place in fEkallate1. The city and (its) houses, from its foundation to its top, I destroyed, I devastated, I burned with fire. The wall and outer wall, temples and gods, temple towers of brick and earth, as many as there were, I razed and dumped them into the Arahtu Canal. Through the midst of that city I dug canals, I flooded its site (lit., ground) with water, and the very foundations thereof (lit., the structure of its foundation) I destroyed. I made its destruction more complete than that by a flood. That in days to come the site of that city, and (its) temples and gods, might not be remembered, I completely blotted it out with (floods) of water and made it like a meadow.

342. At the mouth of the canal which I dug through the midst of the mountain of Tas, I fashioned six great steles14 with the images of the great gods, my lords, upon them, and my royal image, with face averted (in prayer), I set up before them. Every deed of my hands, which I wrought for the good of Nineveh, I had engraved thereon, to be a memorial(P) to the kings, my sons.

343. If ever there is a future prince among the kings, my sons, who destroys the work which I have done, (and) breaks the covenant I have (hereby) made with him, diverts the course of the waters of those canals from the plain of Nine- veh, may the great gods, all whose names are named in these steles, by the word of their mouth, a holy decree which can- not fail, curse him with an evil curse, and overthrow his rule.

2. THE NEBl TONUS SLAB INSCRIPTION

Introduction (IL 1-6)

344. Palace of Sennacherib, the great king, the mighty king, king of the universe, king of Assyria, king of the four quarters (of the world); favorite of the great gods; wise sovereign, provident prince, shepherd of peoples, ruler of widespreading nations, am I. Assur, father of the gods, re- garded me with his sure favor above (lit., among) all princes, and made my arms great above all (those) who dwell in palaces; a righteous scepter, which enlarges the border, an unsparing lance for the overthrow of my enemies, he put into my hand.

First campaign (ll. 6-12)

345. In open battle (lit.f a battle of the plain), like a hurri- cane (deluge) I cast down Merodach-baladan, king of Baby- lonia, the Chaldeans and Arameans, together with the armies of Elam, his ally. That one fled alone to the sea-land and the gods of his whole land, with the bones of his fathers, (who lived) before (him), (which) he gathered from their coffins, and his people, he loaded on ships and crossed over to Nagitu, which is on the other side of the Bitter Sea (Persian Gulf); and in that place he died. The whole of his land I conquered and counted as booty. His cities I destroyed, I devastated, I burned with fire.

Second campaign (ll. 12-13)

346 I conquered Hirimmu and the land of the Iasubigal- lai; the land of the Elippi I overthrew, and I destroyed its towns.

Third campaign (ll. 13-15)

347. I deprived Lull, king of Sidon, of his kingdom. Tuba'lu I set on his throne and imposed my royal tribute upon him. I overthrew the wide province of Judah. On Hezekiah, its king, I laid my yoke.

Fifth campaign (ll. 16-17)

348. The people of Tumur, who live in the steep moun- tains, I cut them down with the sword. Ukku with all of its towns, I destroyed (so that they were) like ruins (left by) the flood.

Campaigns against Cilicia and Til-garimmu by Sennacherib's generals (ll. 17-19)

349. The people of Hilakku, who live in the mountains, I slew with the sword; their cities I destroyed, I devastated, I burned with fire. Til-garimmu, which is on the border of Tabalu, I captured and turned into ruins.

Sixth campaign (ll. 19-26)

350. Nagitu, Nagitu-di'bina, Hilmu, Pillatu, Hupap&nu, the provinces of the king of Elam which lie on the other side of the sea, where the people of Bit-Iakin, gathering the gods of their lands in their shrines before my mighty arms, and crossing the sea, had settled,—in Hittite ships, which I built in Nineveh and Til-barsip, I crossed the sea. The cities of those provinces I captured and burned with fire. The people of Bit-Iakin, and their gods, together with the men of the king of Elam, I carried off and brought them to Assyria.

Seventh campaign (ll. 27-44)

351. Afterward, the Babylonians who had gone out with Merodach-baladan and had fled to Elam, (and) the king of Elam, came to Babylon, and he (the Elamite king) placed Shuzubu, son of Gahul, on the royal throne over them. Soldiers, chariots, horses, my royal host, against the king of Elam I sent. Many of his frost, together with his son, they slew, and he turned back. But they marched on to Erech. Shamash of Larsa, Belit of Eridu(?), Belit of Erech, Nan&, Usuramatsa, Belit-balati ("Goddess of Life"), Kurunnam, Kashshitu, Nergal, the gods dwelling in Erech, as well as their property and their goods,—there was no numbering it, they carried off as spoil. On their return (march) they (lit., their hands) seized Shuzubu, king of Babylon, alive in open battle. They threw him fettered into a cage and brought him before me. I tied him up in the middle city gate of Nineveh, like a pig. The king of Elam, who had come to aid the Baby- lonians,—against his land I marched. The strong cities, his treasure cities, and the small cities of their environs, as far as the pass of (or, entrance to) Bit-Bunakki, I besieged, I cap- tured, I carried off their spoil. I destroyed, I devastated, I burned (them) with fire. The king of Elam heard of the cap- ture of his cities and terror fell upon him. The remnant of the people of his land he brought up into strongholds, while he (himself) forsook Madaktu, his royal city, and turned his face toward Haidala, which is in the midst of the mountains. To Madaktu, his royal city, I ordered the march. Tebitu (the tenth Babylonian month) (with) severe weather (cold) set in, uninterrupted rains came on, and snow. I was afraid of the swollen mountain streams and turned back and took the road to Assyria.

Eighth campaign (ll. 44-55)

352. Thereupon the king of Elam gathered to himself a large body of confederates,—(the men) of Parsuash, Anzan, Pashiru, Ellipi, the whole of Chaldea, and all the Arameans. These, with the king of Babylon, drew near en masse, and set upon me, offering battle. (Trusting) in the might of Assur, my lord, I fought with them in the plain of the city of Halule, I defeated them, cutting down with the sword 150,000 of their warriors. Their chariots, wagons and royal tents I took from them. Their nobles, as well as Nabfl-shum-ishkun, son of Merodach-baladan, rwho stood(P)1 on silver chariots, were be- decked with golden daggers, had their fingers covered (lit., bound) with golden rings, I (lit., my hands) captured alive in battle. As for the king of Babylon and the king of Elam, the chilling terror of my battle overcame them, they let their dung go into their chariots, they ran off alone, they fled from their land.

3. INSCRIPTION ON AN ALABASTER SLAB IN THE BERLIN MUSEUM

End of sixth campaign (ll. 1-2)

353. [The people of Bit-Iakin and their gods together with the men 1 of the [king of Elam I carried off and brought them to Assyria.]

Seventh campaign (ll. 3-24)

354. Afterward [the Babylonians who had] with Merodach-baladan before my mighty weap- ons had run away and had gone forth and fled to Elam these and the Elamite came to Babylon, and he (the Elamite king) placed [Shuzubu] on the royal throne over them. [Soldiers, chariots], horses, my royal host, [against the king of Elam I sent]. Many of his host, together with his son, they slew. [But I turned back while] they marched on to Erech. Shamash of Larsa, . . . . [the gods] dwelling therein (i.e., in Erech) together with their property and their goods,—there was no numbering it, they carried off as spoil. On their return (march), Shuzubu, [king of Baby- Ion], they captured alive [in open battle] and [brought him] before me. I tied him up in the gate in the middle of the city of Nineveh like a pig.

355* [The king of Elam who had come to the aid1 of the Babylonians,—[against his land I marched. The strong cities1, his treasure cities and the small cities [of their environs, as far as] the pass of (or, entrance to) Bit-Bunakki, I besieged, I captured, [I carried off their spoil. I destroyed 1 , I dev- astated, I burned (them) with fire. [The king of Elam heard of the capture of his cities1 and terror fell upon him. The rem- nant of the people of his land [he brought up into strong- holds], while he himself forsook Madaktu, his royal city and turned his face [to Haidala, which is in the midst 1 of the mountains. [To Madaktu, his royal city1, I ordered the march. Tebitu, with severe weather set in . . . . [I was afraid1 [of the swollen mountain streams] and turned back and took the road to Assyria.

Eighth campaign (IL 25-Rev. 21)

356 of his province upon mounds, , the rest of the people of his land [who had fled] before my weapons, . . . he(?) brought down and settled in the forests(?) the people of his land, I captured and counted as spoil. . . . I burned with fire. The Babylonians . . . . gathered together and submitted to him I ordered to march to Shuanna (Babylon) with lamen- tations. Fear fell upon them. The treasury of Esagila they opened. Gold, silver, precious stones to the king of Elam [as a gift (bribe) they sent. Their messenger] they dispatched with the message: "To Babylon [hasten, come to our aid, (side)] for thou art our trust." That Elamite king [whom in the course of my former campaign] I had defeated, had carried off his spoil, had destroyed his cities, [had devastated and burned them with fire1, who hadn't any sense, . . . . received the gifts (bribes) of the Babylonians did not tell them what to do ( ? ) . . . . his army and camp he gathered and Parsuash, Anzan, Pashiru all the Arameans, an enormous host of confederates, [he called to his side. Baby- lon1 and the Babylonians, Borsippa and the men of Borsippa . . . . to make battle they came on against me.

357. [In the might of Assur, my lord, in] the plain of Halule\ r I fought with them, I defeated them], 150,000 of their warriors I cut down with the sword. Their chariots,] wagons, and royal tents I took from them. [Their nobles, as well as Nabft-shum-ishkun1, son of Merodach-baladan, rwho stood(?) on silver chariots], were bedecked with golden ornaments, wore golden daggers, had their fingers covered [with golden rings], these, alive, in the [midst of the battle of my hand captured 1 . The king of Babylon and the king of Elam, [—the chilling terror of my battle overcame them 1 and they let their dung go into their chariots. They ran off alone and fled from their land.

Campaign, by one of Sennacherib's generals(?)} toward the end of the reign (ll. 22-27)

358. [Telhunu], queen of the Arabs, in the midst of the desert, . . . . x thousand camels I took from her hand. She, with Hazael, the terror of my battle overcame them, they left their tents, . . . to the . . . of the city of Adummatu they fled for their lives. . . . . . and 'Adummatu 1 , which are situated in the desert, of thirst, wherein there are no feeding nor drinking places

4. THE SEAL OF TUKULTI-URTA

359. (Obv.) Tukulti-Urta, king of the universe, son of Shalmaneser, king of Assyria. Booty of Babylonia (Kardu, for Karduniash). Who blots out my inscribed name, may Assur and Adad destroy his name and his land. This seal found some hidden way from Assyria to hostile Akkad. I, Sennacherib, king of Assyria, after 600 years, took Babylon, and from the wealth (booty) of Babylon, I selected it.

360. {Edge) Property of Shagarakti-Shuriash, king of the universe.

361. {Rev.) Tukulti-Urta, king of the universe, son of Shalmaneser, king of Assyria. Booty of Babylonia (Kar- dunishi). Who blots out my written name, may Assur and Adad destroy his name and his land. Property of Shagarakti- Shuriash, king of the universe. What was on a seal cylinder of lapis lazuli.

Footnotes

1 Lit., chariot of my feet.

2 Lit., lord of the oath and curse of Assyria.

3 LU. 9 by causing (them) to tread the ramp, or, incline.

4 Lit., choice, picked.

5 Lit., subjects.

6 The sacred precinct of Babylon.

7 My medical friends tell me that one would expect to hear of the passing, rather than the retention, of the urine.

8 The lines of this and the following paragraphs are restored in part from a duplicate text.

9 Or, possibly, who do not heed death.

10 i.e., your protege

11 Syrians.

12 Text, Iadnanai, but stone seems to have Iamanai.The two are, however, synonymous.

13 So variant text.

14 These are, of course, the rock surfaces at Bavian on which this text was in- scribed.